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Page describes steps to verify systemd functionality and possible fixes for troublesome parts.

To check if everything works correctly use

systemctl status -a

and look for failed services if any.

Required overrides

Some systems require systemd override files to disable security hardening not supported by our OpenVZ kernel - this includes seccomp filter and memory deny write execute.

These can be disabled for specific service with following override file:


File needs to be placed in


To create it manually for e.g. systemd-journald.service use

systemctl edit systemd-journald
# paste override code from above
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start systemd-journald

Knot DNS

With systemd and OpenVZ, Knot DNS fails to start with the following error message:

... systemd[22357]: knot.service: Failed at step CAPABILITIES spawning /usr/sbin/knotc: Invalid argument
-- Subject: Process /usr/sbin/knotc could not be executed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: https://www.debian.org/support
-- The process /usr/sbin/knotc could not be executed and failed.
-- The error number returned by this process is 22.
... systemd[1]: knot.service: Control process exited, code=exited status=218
... systemd[1]: Failed to start Knot DNS server.

The reason is that Knot DNS systemd unit specifies a few required capabilities which vpsFree does not support under OpenVZ, namely:

# cat /lib/systemd/system/knot.service


For explanation of what these capabilities mean visit this link.

The first step is either commenting these out or even better, overriding the settings.

systemctl edit knot.service


(note the ~ as a value for CapabilityBoundingSet).

and reload with systemctl daemon-reload.

Now Knot DNS starts but fails to bind to port 53/TCP and 53/UDP because without the capability CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE Knot DNS can't bind to system ports (<1024) as a user knot. The solution is to let Knot DNS know to run as root first, bind the necessary ports and then switch to user knot afterwards.

So first we override once more and add User= and Group=:

systemctl edit knot.service


Then we edit the Knot DNS configuration itself and specify user and group knot for it:

nano /etc/knot/knot.conf

    user: knot:knot


Reload once again with systemctl daemon-reload and you should be good to go.

systemd.txt · Poslední úprava: 2019/04/19 19:55 autor: wwcovh